Composite materials are a type of dental restorative material consisting of a polymeric or resin matrix filled with inorganic particles. They are usually classified based on the size, amount, and composition of the inorganic filler.
Types of composites Composition-Based:
Microfill & Macrofill Composites are deprecated, Here the types are available in the markets:
1- Micro-Hybrid Composites
The micro-hybrid composite described is a light-cured resin-based dental composite containing approximately 76% by weight (60% by volume) inorganic filler with an average particle size of 0.7 microns. It is suitable for anterior and posterior restorations, combining durability for posterior restorations and polishability for anterior esthetics.
2- Nano-Hybrid Composites
A nanohybrid composite is a type of resin composite with unique nanofiller technology. They contain 75-85% inorganic filler by weight, a mixture of microfiller (0.4-1 µm in diameter) and nanofiller particles (0.02-0.07 µm in diameter). They have physical and mechanical properties superior to conventional composites and a smooth surface texture.
The benefits of nanohybrid composites include minimal tooth removal, immediate cost savings compared to crowns, single-appointment restoration, high-gloss finish, ease of color matching, and the ability to solve multiple problems.
They are ideal for anterior and posterior restorations and can be used in direct composite bonding without removing additional tooth structure.
3- Nanofill Composites
Nanofilled resin composite materials are dental restorative materials that contain nanosized particles and are used for anterior and posterior restorations. It is contain very fine filler particles (typically <0.05 µm) and have an inorganic filler content of >85% by weight.
They have excellent desirable qualities such as esthetic appearance and good physical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of nanocomposites are generally comparable to those of hybrid composites and higher than microfilled composites.
The clinical performance of nanocomposites is comparable to that of hybrid composites. Nanocomposites have lower abrasive wear than hybrids but higher water sorption values.
4- Compomer-Based Composites
Compomers, also known as Polyacid-Modified Composites, offer a unique solution in dental restorations, especially for pediatric patients. With a combination of glass ionomer components and light-cured properties, compomers are easy to handle and offer superior performance compared to traditional glass ionomers and RMGIs.
However, they fall short compared to resin-based composites, and have limited indications for clinical use. The fluoride release and anti-cariogenicity of compomers is also a subject of debate.
The compomers were created to bring together the best of both worlds- the durability, color stability, and polish of resin-based composites, with the benefits of glass ionomers. The setting reaction is initiated by visible light-polymerization, with an acid-base reaction taking place within the material.
To ensure optimal bonding, compomers are used with methacrylate primers that adhere to enamel and dentin. The etching of tooth structure before restoration placement is considered optional by manufacturers.
5- Ormocer-Based Composites
Ormocers are a new type of dental composite material consisting of a hybrid organic-inorganic material. They have three components: organic (polymer), inorganic (glass and ceramics), and polysiloxane. The organic component provides benefits such as crosslinking, hardness, good optical behavior, polarity, and efficient abrasion resistance.
The inorganic component provides thermal expansion and chemical stability. The polysiloxane component provides elastic and interface properties. The components are joined together by a multifunctional silane group.
The ormocer matrix has low shrinkage compared to organic dimethacrylate monomer matrix seen in composites. However, ormocers show the highest cytotoxicity compared to composites and have low wear resistance, limiting their use in restorative purposes.
6- Zirconium-Based Composites
Zirconium composite fillings offer exceptional natural results and handling for a seamless restoration. The composite is made of silica-zirconia particles, accounting for 60% of its volume with a particle size range of 0.04 to 2.0 μm. It also contains a blend of BIS-GMA, UDMA, and TRI-EDMA resins.
With its light-curing and radiopaque properties, the composite boasts a reduced contraction, resulting in minimal post-operative sensitivity for anterior and posterior restorations with features such as high resistance to wear and breakage, simple and durable polish, easy handling and modeling, and exceptional aesthetics.
Types of composites Viscosity-Based:
1- Packable Composites (Universal)
It is has a higher viscosity and resistance to packing to imitate the feel of amalgam. They aim for easier restoration of proximal contact and similar handling properties as amalgam but do not fully achieve these goals. They may be more difficult to attain optimal marginal adaptation and may require the use of flowable composites to enhance adaptation.
2- Bulk-Fill Composites
Bulk Fill Flow is an advanced dentin replacement material designed to reduce the number of increments required in posterior composite resin restorations. It boasts the same cuspal deflection and marginal integrity as incremental placement, but with a depth of cure up to 4.0mm.
Directional curing is necessary at the gingival margin for full cure in Class II restorations. The lower viscosity of the material enhances its marginal adaptation in cavity preparations, eliminating the need for a traditional nanohybrid capping layer.
The material has high translucency during placement, but becomes more opaque during polymerization, perfectly matching adjacent tooth structure.
3- Flowable Composites
It is contain lower filler content and lower physical properties such as wear resistance and strength compared to heavily filled composites. They exhibit high polymerization shrinkage and are more appropriate for small Class I restorations, pit-and-fissure sealants, marginal repair materials, or as stress-breaking liners.
They may also be used as a first increment in the proximal box of Class II restoration to improve marginal adaptation, which is controversial but may be indicated with the use of packable composites.
Dentists and dental technicians can find and buy dental Composites from SOUQ DENTAL in Saudi Arabia. We will ship your order within 24 hours.